English on-line: особенности использования суффиксов в английском языке

Нассер Амери, заместитель директора обучающего центра British Council рассказал о правилах использования суффиксов в английском языке
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Деловой портал delo.ua совместно с British Council реализует проект "Английский язык on-line". В рамках проекта на портале появляются видеоинтервью с преподавателями British Council.

Тематика видеоинтервью — новые методики и подходы в изучении английского языка, интересные факты и практические советы по улучшению произношения и увеличения словарного запаса.

Тема сегодняшнего интервью — особенности использования суффиксов в английском языке. Интервью дает Нассер Амери, заместитель директора обучающего центра British Council .

Видео, посвященное использования префиксов можно посмотреть здесь.

В отличие от префиксов, суффиксы изменяют не значение слова, а его грамматические характеристики — к примеру, "переводят" существительное в прилагательное.

Пример,

'success' — успех

'successful' — успешный

Для изменения существительного в прилагательное чаще всего используются следующие суффиксы — : '-ful', '-ent', '-ic', '-y'.

'differ' — отличаться

'different' — другой

Для формирования существительных часто используются такие суффиксы как '-ment', '-ility', '-ness'.

'kind' — добрый

'kindness' — доброта

Еще одна распространенная группа суффиксов для формирования существительных '-ion', '-ship', '-ism'.

'friend' — друг

'friendship' — дружба

Текст интервью

Hello once again. This presentation I'm going to talk about suffixes which once again will not be unusual to Ukrainian learners as they exist in both Ukrainian and Russian.

As opposed to prefixes which change the meaning of the word, suffixes tend to change the grammar of the word. So this means they can turn a noun into an adjective without affecting the meaning.

Let's take the example of 'success' which means achieving something or doing well. The word 'success' which is the noun can be turned into an adjective, 'successful', by the use of the suffix '-ful'. 'Success' is the noun, 'successful' is the adjective. However the basic meaning of good achievement is not changed.

Here's the list of four suffixes used to make adjectives: '-ful', '-ent', '-ic', '-y'. Can you think of words with those suffixes? Well for example 'beauty' becomes 'beautiful' — noun to an adjective. 'Differ', the verb, turns into 'different'. 'Hero', the noun, turns into 'heroic', the adjective. And 'health' the noun becomes 'healthy' the adjective.

There are also a whole host of suffixes to make verbs or adjectives into nouns: '-ment', '-ness', '-ility'. For example 'politicians govern a country by forming a government', the noun. 'People are kind', adjective, 'by showing kindness', the noun. And if somebody is very good at something they are 'able', in other words 'they have lots of ability'.

We also have other suffixes to make nouns: '-ion', '-ship', '-ism'. '-ion' — for example 'determination' from 'determine'. 'Friend', the noun, can be turned into another noun 'friendship'. Friend is the person, friendship is the concept, the idea. And we also have a very popular suffix '-ism' which usually denotes or means some kind of political or religious belief. For example Catholics follow Catholicism. Businessmen and businesswomen often follow the laws of 'capitalism'. Sometimes '-ism' can become an '-ist' to denote the person. For example, going back to 'capitalism', people who believe in capitalism very strongly are called 'capitalists'.

Finally there are two suffixes that I'd like to look at which are interesting. The first one is '-less' which does to certain extent change the meaning therefore going against the rule of most other suffixes. So for example when we talk about the word 'hope' which is encouraging, something good. But if we talk about a 'hopeless situation' that changes the meaning and it becomes a situation that has no solution.

The other suffix that I'd like to talk about is a recently or a relatively modern one, and it's '-ish'. And it's used in very informal situations to mean 'about' or 'sort of' or 'not exactly'. So for example you can describe your friend as a 'largish person' meaning not very large but quite large. You could also arrange to meet your colleagues for lunch at 'oneish' or 'one-thirtyish' which means 'about or around one or one thirty'.

That's the end of my presentation. I wish you luck with your future studies and learning of English.